The total alkaloids contents of Ephedra foliata (ephedrine and psudoephedrine) were 0.04-0.2%. A few side effects were seen in this study, primarily insomnia, dizziness, and tremor, but they tended to fade away after a few weeks. Notably the results of this research have revealed that 72 plant species belonging to 44 families were frequently used for treatment of cancer by the 150 herbalists, traditional practitioner healers, rural dwellers and people of the West Bank, Palestine (Table 2). Side effects of adjuvant treatment of breast cancer. Derived from the dried rhizome and root of the plant, ephedra has been used as a medicinal herb for thousands of years in India, China and Japan. [Epub ahead of print]. This is just one more way of ensuring your safety and that of our staff. 9- Cytotoxic effects of ephedrine and pseudoephedrine: possessed the same myometrial and urinary bladder. See further details. Accordingly, three Fl values were calculated. These effects have not been studied in humans. Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, An-Najah National University, P.O. Safety and efficacy of treatment with an ephedrine/caffeine mixture. 2002;83:251–65. We don't know exactly how ephedrine/caffeine works. Chemistry Research Journal. "Phytochemical Characterization and Evaluation of the Antimicrobial, Antiproliferative and Pro-Apoptotic Potential of Ephedra alata Decne. Read more. T, as epinephrine but was less potent and has a longer, asystole, an initial dose of about 8 mg of ephedrine, ephedrine. ephedrine occured somewhat more slowly and lasted, about ten times longer. Also, it is of significance to utilize new therapeutic natural plant products in various treatments of diseases. Many patients go to herbalists or informants to get benefit from this field. Lung cancer was the most common type of cancer treated with these plants and Ephedra alata was the most commonly used plant for treatment of cancer in Palestine. light, increased the production threefolds . Herbal ephedra/caffeine for weight loss: a 6-month randomized safety and efficacy trial. The phytochemical analysis of Dolichos lablab showed that it contained sugar, alcohols, phenols, steroids, essential oils, alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, saponins, coumarins, terpenoids, pigments, glycosides, anthnanoids, wide range of minerals and many other metabolites. Global estimates of cancer prevalence for 27 sites in the adult population in 2008. The newer asthma drugs are much safer and easier to tolerate. Ephedra contains ephedrine and pseudoephedrine, which are known to stimulate the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord). D. Male cones showing microsporangia (Sherif and El-Taife 1986). Due to the high death rate among patients with cancer and the hazardous side effects and adverse reactions of the radiotherapy and chemotherapy, cancer patients often start seeking alternative methods of treatments, like herbal medicine with or instead of conventional medicine [24–26]. The present thesis deals with the physicochemical analysis of Abrus precatorius roots and tentative phytochemical analysis. Frequencies and percentages were calculated for categorical variables. You have any of the following conditions: Acute bilateral ocular pain and decreased vision along with headache, nausea and vomiting: In a 52-year-old woman after taking a herbal medicine containing ephedra for weight loss. • These two species were active against MCF-7 breast cancer cell line. (See Manandhar NP. Wood AJ, Shapiro CL, Recht A. Effects of ephedra on autonomic nervous modulation in healthy young adults. These informants represented most of the practitioners in this field in the West Bank (Sociodemographic characteristics are presented in Table 1). For this reason, we do not recommend using herbal ephedra at all. 8.3 mg of NEP and NPEP, respectively . The preliminary phytocemical analysis showed that the fruits of Ficus carica contained alkaloids,-and hepato-protective effects. Ethnopharmacological survey of herbal remedies used for treatment of various types of cancer and their methods of preparations in the West Bank-Palestine. For example, in a Ephedra alata is an important Egyptian medicinal plant with enormous applications in pharmaceutical industry. Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center makes no warranties nor express or implied representations whatsoever regarding the accuracy, completeness, timeliness, comparative or controversial nature, or usefulness of any information contained or referenced on this Web site. 2011;17:95–8. University of Thi-Qar - College of Medicine, Therapeutic Importance of Ephedra Alata And, ne, thus preventing uncontrolled urination [51, : A review. 2013;132:1133–45. It was founded that pseudoephedrine, norephedrine, norpseudoephedrine, methylephedrine (methylpseudoephedrine) were able to cross BBB fast via gastro-intestinal tract after administrated with Ephedra sinica. Ephedra alata as biologically-based strategy inhibit aflatoxigenic seedborne mold Theoharides TC. However, caffeine has actions that cause fat breakdown and enhance metabolism.11 A systematic review cited insufficient evidence to support use of ephedra for weight loss (21). Clin Pharmacol Ther. Nadir A, Agrawal S, King PD, et al. ), Benefits have also been seen in smaller studies using herbal sources of ephedrine.9. Keywords: Ephedra alata, human liver cancer cell line, human prostate cancer cell line and methanolic extract 1. Ma huang associated acute liver failure requiring liver transplantation. The nutritional analysis of carrot juice showed that the juice contained: protein 1.067 ± 0.058%, crude fat 0.367 ± 0.089%, crude fibre 1.167 ± 0.153%, carbohydrates 6.100 ± 0.346%, many vitamins and minerals. Ann Onco. An herbal supplement containing Ma Huang-Guarana for weight loss: a randomized, double-blind trial. Meston CM, Heiman JR. Ephedrine-activated physiological sexual arousal in women. An ethnopharmacological survey on herbal remedies used for treatment of various types of cancer was conducted from March 2015 to June 2015. J Ethnopharmacol. The roots were used as aphrodisiac (1, 3-4). In using this website you agree that neither Memorial Sloan Kettering nor any other party is or will be liable or otherwise responsible for any decision made or any action taken or any action not taken due to your use of any information presented at this website. Sahoo N, Manchikanti P, Dey S. Herbal drugs: standards and regulation. The current review discussed the chemical constituents and pharmacological activities of Dolichos lablab. Male strobili solitary or 2, The preliminary phytochemical analyses, maximum ephedrine obtained from callus reached 14. ephedrine accumulation in callus cultures . The Fic was high for all the plants; Fl was 100 % for many plants, the highest UV (0.72) was for Ephedra alata. Solecki RS. J Ethnopharmacol. Am J Epidemiol. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed. The results showed comparable weight loss in both groups. Nishiguchi M, Kinoshita H, Higasa K, et al. At that point, the dosage was gradually reduced, and the difference between the groups declined. heart attack Subscribe to receive issue release notifications and newsletters from MDPI journals, You can make submissions to other journals. Phytochem Rev. Complementary and alternative medicines are widely used among cancer patients throughout the world. Hudaib M, Mohammad M, Bustanji Y, Tayyem R, Yousef M, Abuirjeie M, et al. This Web site is not to be used as a substitute for medical advice, diagnosis or treatment of any health condition or problem. Tradition and perspectives of Arab herbal medicine: a review. The table also showed that the majority of respondents were from areas of the West Bank that mostly depend on agriculture or grazing as a mean of income (Jenin, Nablus, Salfeit and Toulkarem). In recent time, people in both developed and developing countries utilize herbal medicines for improving their health [10–12]. 2, 300041 Timişoara, România, OncoGen Centre, County Hospital "Pius Branzeu", Blvd. Lung cancer was the most common type of cancer treated with these plants and Ephedra alata was the most commonly used plant for treatment of cancer in Palestine. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol. Treatment with the fungal elicitor A. niger extract induced the maximum accumulation of ephedrine at the concentration of 1.67%; it also increased ephedrine biosynthesis by 7-fold in 24-day-old culture as compared to the ephedrine content in the mother plant and caused higher ephedrine biosynthesis than that in the control treatment without elicitors. Danciu, C.; Muntean, D.; Alexa, E.; Farcas, C.; Oprean, C.; Zupko, I.; Bor, A.; Minda, D.; Proks, M.; Buda, V.; Hancianu, M.; Cioanca, O.; Soica, C.; Popescu, S.; Dehelean, C.A. N Africa, Sinai, Palestine, Kuwait, Arabia, Cyprus. Medicinal and Aromatic Plants 2000; 6: 48, Microbiology Research Vol. Palestine is a unique land, in its ecological diversity due to its geographical location between Africa, Asia and Europe. Evid-Based Compl Alt Med. Samenuk D, Link M, Homoud M K, et al. The dosage is another concern. The methods of preparation were decoctions (boiling the plants parts in water), infusions (steeping the plants in water for limited time), syrup (boiling the plants with water and sugar (1:1), creams (mixing the plant powders with goat fat or lanolin), paste, fresh juice, ingested entire plant, powder and vapor inhalations. The current review highlighted the medicinal plants showed antibacterial activity with their spectrum and mechanisms of action. The use of dietary or medicinal plant based natural compounds to disease treatment has become a unique trend in clinical research. Mean ± standard deviation were computed for continuous data. Evidence suggests that ephedrine/caffeine combinations can aid weight loss and help keep the weight off for up to 6 months. Simoben C, Ibezim A, Ntie-Kang F, Nwodo J, Lifongo L. Exploring Cancer Therapeutics with Natural Products from African Medicinal Plants, Part I: Xanthones, Quinones, Steroids, Coumarins, Phenolics and other Classes of Compounds. A Double-Blind, Randomized, Crossover Comparative Study for Evaluating the Clinical Safety of Ephedrine Alkaloids-Free Ephedra Herb Extract (EFE). Recently, the use of natural herbal products is increasing in both developed and developing countries due to many reasons [33, 34]. CA Cancer J Clin. The current paper reviewed the chemical constituents, nutritional and pharmacological importance of Ficus carica. N Engl J Med. Booker A, Johnston D, Heinrich M. Value chains of herbal medicines—Research needs and key challenges in the context of ethnopharmacology. Ovulate cones pedunculate at nodes, oblong-ovate, up to 10 mm long, with 2 fertile flowers and 4-5 pairs of imbricated, yellowish bracts, with membranous and wavy, wing-like margin. According to the Raosoft calculator the minimum sample should be 141 participants, so we included 150 . A New Highlight of Ephedra alata Decne Properties as Potential Adjuvant in Combination with Cisplatin to Induce Cell Death of 4T1 Breast Cancer Cells In Vitro and In Vivo. double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 180 overweight individuals were placed on a weight-loss diet and given either ephedrine/caffeine (20 mg/200 mg), ephedrine alone (20 mg), caffeine alone (200 mg), or placebo, 3 times daily for 24 weeks.6 In another study conducted in the West Bank, Ali-Shtayeh and Rana, 2011, found only 25 plant species used for treatment in cancer without mentioning which type of cancer they can treat . CAS 2007;92:906–8. A randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover study of ephedrine for SSRI-induced female sexual Dysfunction. 2011;17:235–40. type of cancer treated with these plants and Ephedra alata was the most commonly used plant for treatment of cancer in Palestine. Koduru S, Grierson D, Afolayan A. Ethnobotanical information of medicinal plants used for treatment of cancer in the Eastern Cape Province. 2011;137:27–35. Molecules 24, no. purposes, especially venereal diseases [25-26]. In the Mediterranean region and especially in the Holy land (Palestine), the traditional medicine has been highly appreciated and trusted. sexual dysfunction.20 Ghorbani A. 1996;60:679-686. The least MIC was recorded against Trichophyton mentagrophytes which was l.5 µg/ml, while the highest MIC was recorded against Cladosporium cladosporoides which was 6.2 µg/ml. Mendelssohn H, Yom-Tov Y. Mammalia of Israel. A survey of medicinal plants of Jajarkot district. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. Anxiety, hypertension, heart disease, glaucoma, prostate enlargement, hyperthyroidism. http://www.medscape.com/MedscapeWire/2000/08...medwire.0816.Nol, http://www.fda.gov/bbs/topics/NEWS/2006/NEW01434.html, http://www.fda.gov/oc/initiatives/ephedra/febru...2004/default.htm. The Latest Research Incorporating current research on the devastating role of chronic systemic inflammation and the cumulative effect of poor oxygen metabolism and free radicals on changes in mitochondrial DNA, enzyme activity, and accelerations in the aging process, the text bridges the gap between ancient remedies and modern knowledge Effective Treatment Deconstructing the molecular mystery that is the interaction among herbal properties, physiology, and disease, Pharmacodynamic Basis of Herbal Medicine, Second Edition opens the door to successful herbal treatment. EFSA J 2013; 11(11): 3467. A convenience sample of herbalists and practitioners from various regions were met by researchers and asked to answer a face to face questionnaire. A multidisciplinary approach combining traditional herbal knowledge with pharmaceutical research is a valuable method for identifying potential herbs with possible clinical significance in cancer care . It is well known that not all the plant parts contain the same concentration of the active constituents. While it is possible for healthy individuals under physician supervision to use ephedrine or ephedrine/caffeine combinations safely, in individuals with heart disease, and even occasionally in those with no known heart conditions, ephedrine can cause serious disturbances of the heart rhythm and possibly sudden death; strokes have also occurred.15,18,22,23 Toxicol Sci. Ephedra is a genus of gymnosperm shrubs, the only genus in its family, Ephedraceae, and order, Ephedrales. Google Scholar. Ann Intern Med. The number of registered herbalists in the West Bank is 222. Find support for a specific problem on the support section of our website. Article In addition to that it was as an important international trade crossroad from ancient times, between North Africa, East Asia and West Europe; this added to its culture in herbal medicines [3–5]. To have the expected benefits, the patients should receive a fixed well defined dosage, but in traditional medicine the suitable doses are not clear , so studies are needed to determine the concentration of active ingredients depending on their method of preparation to give the suitable recommended doses. They were possessed wide range of pharmacological and biochemical effects, such as inhibition of aldose reductase, cycloxygenase, Ca+2-ATPase, xanthine oxidase, phosphodiesterase, lipoxygenase in addition to their antioxidant, antidiabetic, neuroprotective antimicrobial anti-inflammatory, immunomodullatory, gastroprotective, regulatory role on hormones synthesis and releasing…. The current review was design to discuss the medicinal plants contained phenolics and flavonoids, as natural ingredients for many therapeutic purposes. Astrup A, Breum L, Toubro S, et al. Nonetheless, ephedrine is a potent central and peripheral nervous system stimulant, causing the stimulation of both α and β adrenergic receptors, and the release of dopamine within the brain and norepinephrine (noradrenaline) from sympathetic nerves within and external to the CNS. The statements, opinions and data contained in the journal, © 1996-2020 MDPI (Basel, Switzerland) unless otherwise stated. plants grow along the Rocky Mountains . In all the extracts, alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides and phenols are available. PE with time was determined by GC-MS method. Lanzotti V. Drugs based on natural compounds: recent achievements and future perspectives. Article Meaningful evidence suggests ephedrine/caffeine combinations can assist in Traditional Arabic and Islamic medicine, a re-emerging health aid. important effects with a variable diameter of growth. 2006;3:229–35. All researchers collected the data from local herbal practitioners and revised and approved the final manuscript. They were interviewed in Arabic after getting their verbal consent only once. // End -->. Yesilada E. Contribution of traditional medicine in the healthcare system of the Middle East. The previous pharmacological studies of Datura fastuosa showed that it possessed antimicrobial insecticidal, antidiabetic, cytotoxic, antioxidant, antiinflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic, neurological, wound healing, reproductive and antispasmodic, while Datura stramonium exerted Antiepileptic, Anti-asthmatic, analgesic, antioxidant, antimicrobial, insecticidal, repellent and organophosphate protective effects. Author information: (1)Research Unit Bioactive Natural Products and Biotechnology UR17ES49, Faculty of … Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. http://www.fda.gov/oc/initiatives/ephedra/febru...2004/default.htm. or 1: 13. 2003;138:468-471. acquire the distribution characteristics and differences in cerebral cortex, cerebellum, hippocampus, striatum, medulla oblongata and hypothalamus. 2005;17:581-584. These alkaloids can be used as decongestants because they constrict peripheral blood vessels, but in high doses, they also raise blood pressure (1) (2) (3). Google Scholar. Azaizeh H, Saad B, Cooper E, Said O. B. document.write(theYear); Obes Res. The pharmacological studies showed that Dodonaea viscosa possessed antidiabetic, antimicrobial, insecticidal, antioxidant, cytotoxic, antifertility, wound, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anti-ulcer, antispasmodic, anti-diarrheal and detoxification effects. conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève 2011. thesis. CA Cancer J Clin. Further scientific laboratory studies are required to explore and to investigate the safety and efficacy of these plants, their potential therapeutic effects as well as probable interactions of these medicinal products with conventional anticancer medicines. Meston CM. Lee MK, Cheng BW, Che CT, et al. The medicinal activity of these bioactive compounds derived from phytochemical analysis can be responsible for its pharmacological activities. Traditional herbal medicine knowledge and their utilization by indigenous cultures are not only useful for conservation of biodiversity and cultural traditions but also useful for the population’s healthcare and drug discovery in the present and in the future [31, 32]. bc764e092680: col 20160426 [28 April 2016]. Israel J Ethnopharmacol. The present pro- tocol could be applicable for the large-scale production of ephedrine from E. alata. belongs to the Ephedraceae family. The variation of E and, Vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) spectra in the OH- and NH-stretching regions have been measured for six pharmaceutical molecules in the ephedra class, (1S,2R)-norephedrine, (1), (1S,2S)-norpseudoephedrine (2), (1S,2R)-ephedrine (3), (1S,2S)-pseudoephedrine (4), (1S,2R)-N-methylephedrine (5) and (1S,2S)-N-methylpseudoephedrine (6), all in dilute C2Cl4 solution. This method is an effective and easy option of data collection. Map of the West Bank/ Palestine showing all surveyed regions. 2, 2:239. Chen WL, Tsai TH, Yang CC, Kuo TB. Fauna Palaestina. ash content) under storage conditions . PubMed IOSR Journal of Pharmacy 2017; 7(2): A review. A. This proportion is particularly impressive given that less than 1% of all herbal products sold in the US contained ephedra. According to table 4, only Fl values higher than 50 % were included. Keep in mind that participants were screened prior to the study and were eliminated if they had high blood pressure or any other serious disease, or if they used medications or illegal drugs that might interact with stimulants. Cite this article. The current review highlights the chemical constituents and pharmacological effects of Datura fastuosa and Datura stramonium. Edited by Christopher J. Earle Therefore minor restrictions could be included as they have minor risk compared to the obtained therapeutic benefits from their use for cancer. 2004 Aug 31. 2, 300041 Timişoara, România, Department of Toxicology, University of Medicine and Pharmacy “Victor Babeş“, Eftimie Murgu Square, No. Another study compared ephedrine/caffeine with the no-longer-available drug dexfenfluramine (Redux), related to fenfluramine of fen-phen fame.8 On a per-use basis, for example, ephedra has 720 times the risk of causing harm as ginkgo biloba. Phytochemical analysis showed that the root of Daucus carota contained alkaloids, carbohydrates, chlorogenic acid, flavonoids, phenols, essential oil, terpenoid and coumarin. Evid-Based Compl Alt Med. The recently developed locally distributed origin gauge model for VCD was used to calculate VCD spectra of the conformers for each drug. Am J Gastroenterol. Hydroalcoholic Extract against the MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cell Line. There is some evidence, though, that counters this claim of cardiovascular risk. An ethnopharmacological survey of herbal remedies used in cancer treatment was carried out in the West Bank/ Palestine. 2003;27(2):123-124. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/I, 33.Miller AG and Morris M. Ethnoflora of, de la flore d'Afrique du nord 3: 1-449. The previous pharmacological studies revealed that medicinal plants possessed wide range of antibacterial activities (19)(20)(21)(22)(23)(24) . The authors declare that they have no competing interests. As shown in (Table 1), most of the respondents who work in this field were males. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated. 1999;37:485-489. Frequency of the used parts of medicinal plants in cancer treatment. (Contrary to the hopes of the experimenters, ephedrine/caffeine use did not help individuals quit smoking. 5. Hydroalcoholic Extract against the MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cell Line." Fl was 100 % for many plants; the highest UV (0.72) was for Ephedra alata. Orhan IE. Cancer types treated with herbals in Palestine. The author considers the site, mode, and mechanism of action to explain the desired and adverse effects and interactions of each herb, drug, and food in an encyclopedic volume. • These two species had an appreciable anti-inflammatory activity in RAW 264.7 macrophages. For adults, no more than 25 mg should be taken at one time, and a total daily intake of 100 mg should not be exceeded.12 However, a survey of ephedra-containing dietary supplements found that ephedrine content as listed on the label was frequently incorrect.13 Neurology. Knowledge and use of medicinal plants by local specialists in an region of Atlantic Forest in the state of Pernambuco (Northeastern Brazil). The least (MIC) was recorded against S. aureus (3.1 mg/ml),while the highest (MIC) was recorded against E.coli (12.5 mg/ml). shrubs that grow about 60 to 90 cm h, cm, linear. 1986. The results showed that the ephedrine/caffeine treatment significantly enhanced weight loss, resulting in a loss of more than 36 pounds as compared to only 29 pounds in the placebo group, a 7-pound difference. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. Samples of these collected herbs were given a herbarium specimen number as shown in Table 2 and voucher samples were kept at the Pharmacognosy Laboratory of the Department of Pharmacy at An-Najah National University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences (Table 2). 1). Today, the main importance of Ephedra species in the medical field is due to the presence of the alkaloids derived from phenyl-alanine, which act on the sympathetic nervous system as a sympathomimetic. Danciu, Corina; Muntean, Delia; Alexa, Ersilia; Farcas, Claudia; Oprean, Camelia; Zupko, Istvan; Bor, Andrea; Minda, Daliana; Proks, Maria; Buda, Valentina; Hancianu, Monica; Cioanca, Oana; Soica, Codruta; Popescu, Sofia; Dehelean, Cristina A. 2004;30:57-68. Laboratory studies indicate that ephedra also can kill bacteria on contact, reduce inflammation, and cause contraction of the muscles of the uterus. The safety of ephedra for use during pregnancy has not been established. Rosangkima G, Prasad S. Antitumour activity of some plants from Meghalaya and Mizoram against murine ascites Dalton’s lymphoma. Many plant species are still used by herbalists and traditional practitioner healers in Palestine for treating various types of cancer. Academic Editors: Natália Martins and Gertjan van Dijk, Received: 21 November 2018 / Revised: 12 December 2018 / Accepted: 19 December 2018 / Published: 20 December 2018, (This article belongs to the Special Issue, This is an open access article distributed under the, Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. PubMed Google Scholar. A preliminary check-list of Libyan flora. review. A double-blind multi-centre trial in general practice. Astrup A, Breum L, Toubro S. Pharmacological and clinical studies of ephedrine and other thermogenic agonists. In fact, its main use is to select disease categories where there is consensus on the use of plants among the informants. Ephedra species contain alkaloids ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, norephedrine, norpseudoephedrine, methylephedrine, and methylpseudoephedrine. Department of Pharmacognosy, University of Medicine and Pharmacy “Victor Babeş“, Eftimie Murgu Square, No. Cuny: Feminist Press; 2010. This study was carried out to investigate the antifungal effect of Alhagi maurorum phenolic extract against Alternaria alternata, Candida albicans, Cladosporium cladosporoides, Cryptococcus neoformans and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Indo Am J P Sci 2017; 4(01): 117, plants (part 3): plant based review. In addition, compounds high in ephedrine, such as over-the-counter medications to treat sinus congestion or symptoms of the common cold, can be and are used to synthesize the illegal drug metamphetamine. Adverse cardiovascular events temporally associated with Ma Huang, an herbal source of ephedrine. Cytotoxicity assessment of Ma-huang (Ephedra) under different conditions of preparation. determined by using rutin reference standard method, equivalent/g of extract powder) , while in. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed. These patients did not have increased rates of Herbal medicines in cancer care in the Palestinian Authority. J Med Person. Boozer CN, Nasser JA, Heymsfield SB, et al.