British support of the White Army provided the greatest threat to the Red Army in Central Asia during 1918. With the main base of the Russian SFSR secured, the Soviets could now strike back. Kolchak 2.jpg, Аrchive ransomed from the descendants of А.Kolchak. The Provisional Government, led by Socialist Revolutionary Party politician Alexander Kerensky, was unable to solve the most pressing issues of the country, most importantly to end the war with the Central Powers. However, he failed to gain control of Tashkent, Bukhara and Khiva. The Japanese Army Occupied Vragaeschensk (Blagoveshchensk) original.jpg, The Illustration of The Siberian War, No. In January 1918 the Bolsheviks dissolved the Russian Constituent Assembly and proclaimed the Soviets (workers' councils) as the new government of Russia. The February Revolution of 1917 resulted in the abdication of Nicholas II of Russia. The second period of the war lasted from January to November 1919. Among the antagonists were the Czechoslovak Legion, the Poles of the 4th and 5th Rifle Divisions and the pro-Bolshevik Red Latvian riflemen.  The White Terror, as it would become known, killed about 300,000 people in total. All structured data from the file and property namespaces is available under the. The transport from the Eastern Front to Vladivostok slowed down in the chaos, and the troops became dispersed all along the Trans-Siberian Railway. Denikin's forces constituted a real threat and for a time threatened to reach Moscow. By mid-December 1918 White armies had to leave Ufa, but they balanced this failure with a successful drive towards Perm, which they took on 24 December. Boldyrev, Commander-in-Chief, appointed by the Ufa Directorate.  The Cossack Don Army under the command of Gen. Vladimir Sidorin continued north towards Voronezh, but there Semyon Budyonny's cavalrymen defeated them on 24 October. Kolchak.jpg, Аrchive ransomed from the descendants of А.Kolchak. The Red Army recaptured Kiev on 17 December and the defeated Cossacks fled back towards the Black Sea. The Czechoslovak Legions had been part of the Russian Army and numbered around 30,000 troops by October 1917. Mustafa Chokay: The Basmachi Movement in Turkestan, in: The Asiatic Review 24 (1928).  The White Russians supported this government body, which lasted several months because of Bolshevik troop isolation from Moscow. The Bolsheviks appointed political commissars to each unit of the Red Army to maintain morale and to ensure loyalty. " It is estimated that the total output of mines and factories in 1921 had fallen to 20% of the pre-World War level, and many crucial items experienced an even more drastic decline. The White Movement also suffered greater loss as the Allies pulled back from North and South Russia. For example, cotton production fell to 5%, and iron to 2%, of pre-war levels. After a series of engagements, assisted by a Black Army offensive against White supply lines, the Red Army defeated Denikin's and Yudenich's armies in October and November. A Czecho-Slovak scout in Siberia LCCN2016822064.tif 5,970 × 4,278; 24.36 MB.  In fact, the Reds attacked Estonian army positions and fighting continued until a cease-fire went into effect on 3 January 1920. Normdaten (Person): GND OGND, AKS) | LCCN VIAF Wikipedia-Personensuche. ed.. Liddell Hart, Basil. Uladzimir Ksianievič.jpg, Шыхт Пінска-Валынскага добраахвотнага батальёну.jpg, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?title=Category:Civil_war_of_Russia&oldid=366244802, Uses of Wikidata Infobox providing interwiki links, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License.  Kolchak's government shot 25,000 people in Ekaterinburg province alone. As a result, the Russian Provisional Government was established, and soviets, elected councils of workers, soldiers, and peasants, were organized throughout the country, leading to a situation of dual power.  However, after the military fiasco of the summer offensive (June 1917) by the Russian Provisional Government had devastated the structure of the Russian Army, it became crucial that Lenin realize the promised peace. The revolt of the Czechoslovak Legion broke out in May 1918, and the legionaries took control of Chelyabinsk in June.  The Second Polish Republic, Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia formed their own armies immediately after the abolition of the Brest-Litovsk Treaty and the start of the Soviet westward offensive in November 1918.. However, he did not gain the necessary support for the endeavour.  By its end, 83% of all Red Army divisional and corps commanders were ex-Tsarist soldiers.. Jean-David Avenel: Interventions alliées pendant la guerre civile russe (1918–1920). , After the defeat of Wrangel, the Red Army immediately repudiated its 1920 treaty of alliance with Nestor Makhno and attacked the anarchist Black Army; the campaign to liquidate Makhno and the Ukrainian anarchists began with an attempted assassination of Makhno by Cheka agents. While resistance to the Red Guards began on the very day after the Bolshevik uprising, the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk and the instinct of one-party rule became a catalyst for the formation of anti-Bolshevik groups both inside and outside Russia, pushing them into action against the new Soviet government. Lenin personally apologized to the Germans for the assassination. Diederichs, Jena 1930. The third period of the war was the extended siege of the last White forces in the Crimea. The first period lasted from the Revolution until the Armistice. Although Russia experienced extremely rapid economic growth in the 1930s, the combined effect of World War I and the Civil War left a lasting scar on Russian society and had permanent effects on the development of the Soviet Union. The Soviets engaged non-Russian peoples in Central Asia, like Magaza Masanchi, commander of the Dungan Cavalry Regiment, to fight against the Basmachis. One was Lt. Col. Bailey, who recorded a mission to Tashkent, from where the Bolsheviks forced him to flee. Lincoln, W. Bruce. Only a few hundred of them reached Persia in June 1920. "Reconsidering the Ukrainian Revolution 1917–1921: The Dialectics of National Liberation and Social Emancipation. On 20 June Denikin issued his Moscow directive, ordering all AFSR units to prepare for a decisive offensive to take Moscow. , At the beginning of March 1919 the general offensive of the Whites on the eastern front began. Their military forces, bolstered by forced conscriptions and terror as well as foreign influence, under the leadership of General Nikolai Yudenich, Admiral Alexander Kolchak and General Anton Denikin, became known as the White movement (sometimes referred to as the "White Army") and controlled significant parts of the former Russian Empire for most of the war. By 1919 they had begun to run short of supplies. A failed military coup by General Lavr Kornilov in September 1917 led to a surge in support for the Bolshevik party, who gained majorities in the soviets, which until then had been controlled by the Socialist Revolutionaries. Winston Churchill declared that Bolshevism must be "strangled in its cradle". In May 1918, the Czech Legion in Russia revolted in Siberia. During the summer Bolshevik power in Siberia was eliminated. Yudenich also had six British tanks, which caused panic whenever they appeared. 26 vanya.jpg 884 × 596; 413 KB. The droughts of 1920 and 1921, as well as the 1921 famine, worsened the disaster still further. The peasants responded to requisitions by refusing to till the land. Williams, Beryl, The Russian Revolution 1917–1921, Blackwell Publishing Ltd. (1987), Howard Fuller, "Great Britain and Russia’s Civil War:“The Necessity for a Definite and Coherent Policy”. After the fall of Kazan, Vladimir Lenin called for the dispatch of Petrograd workers to the Kazan Front: "We must send down the maximum number of Petrograd workers: (1) a few dozen 'leaders' like Kayurov; (2) a few thousand militants 'from the ranks'". Amur Labour Soviet Republic.jpg 625 × 497; 33 KB. More significant was the emergence of an anarchist political and military movement known as the Revolutionary Insurrectionary Army of Ukraine or the Anarchist Black Army led by Nestor Makhno. By this time Denikin's forces were dangerously overextended. The Soviets viewed the treaty as merely a necessary and expedient means to end the war. The Komuch pursued an ambivalent social policy, combining democratic and socialist measures, such as the institution of an eight-hour working day, with "restorative" actions, such as returning both factories and land to their former owners. Three foreign nations of the Central Powers also intervened, rivaling the Allied intervention with the main goal of retaining the territory they had received in the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk. In September–October, heavy fighting took place at Armavir and Stavropol. In September 1919 a White offensive was launched against the Tobol front, the last attempt to change the course of events. The Armed Forces of South Russia were thus created. In the Ural-Guryev operation of 1919–1920, the Red Turkestan Front defeated the Ural Army. In July 1919 the Red Army suffered another reverse after a mass defection of units in the Crimea to the anarchist Black Army under Nestor Makhno, enabling anarchist forces to consolidate power in Ukraine. Viktor G. Bortnevski, "White Administration and White Terror (the Denikin Period).". Luckett, Richard. Bullock, p. 7 "Peripheral regions of the former Russian Empire that had broken away to form new nations had to fight for independence: Finland, Poland, Estonia, Lithuania, Latvia, Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia and Azerbaijan.". Hence, many of these countries expressed their support for the Whites, including the provision of troops and supplies. For a time Central Asia was completely cut off from Red Army forces in Siberia. Record of service.jpg, Аrchive ransomed from the descendants of А.Kolchak. Weekdays and holidays at sea.jpg, Аrchive ransomed from the descendants of А.Kolchak. Disease had reached pandemic proportions, with 3,000,000 dying of typhus in 1920 alone. There were also many German commanders who offered support against the Bolsheviks, fearing a confrontation with them was impending as well. With the support of the Japanese army it was able to hold Chita, but after withdrawal of Japanese soldiers from Transbaikalia, Semenov's position became untenable, and in November 1920 he was driven by the Red Army from Transbaikalia and took refuge in China. , After Moscow's Bolshevik government signed a military and political alliance with Nestor Makhno and the Ukrainian anarchists, the Black Army attacked and defeated several regiments of Wrangel's troops in southern Ukraine, forcing him to retreat before he could capture that year's grain harvest. ", This page was last edited on 8 November 2020, at 18:02. On the 11th Simbirsk fell, and on 8 October Samara. On 13 October Gen. Kazanovich's division took Armavir, and on 1 November Gen. Pyotr Wrangel secured Stavropol. However, units retreating across the border were disarmed and interned by order of the Estonian government, which had entered into peace negotiations with the Soviet Government on 16 September and had been informed by the Soviet authorities of their 6 November decision that, should the White Army be allowed to retreat into Estonia, it would be pursued across the border by the Reds. This category has the following 14 subcategories, out of 14 total. While the White armies were being routed in Central Russia and the east, they had succeeded in driving Nestor Makhno's anarchist Black Army (formally known as the Revolutionary Insurrectionary Army of Ukraine) out of part of southern Ukraine and the Crimea. Stewart-Smith, D.G. Lenin considered it "completely certain, that the slightest aid from Finland would have determined the fate of [the city]". General Denikin's military strength continued to grow in the spring of 1919. Lacking ammunition, artillery and fresh reinforcements, Denikin's army was decisively defeated in a series of battles in October and November 1919. Western socialists had promptly arrived from France and from the UK to convince the Russians to continue the fight, but could not change the new pacifist mood of Russia. Ufa was retaken on 13 March; by mid-April, the White Army stopped at the Glazov–Chistopol–Bugulma–Buguruslan–Sharlyk line. By July the authority of the Komuch extended over much of the area controlled by the Czechoslovak Legion. Simultaneously Russian officers' organisations overthrew the Bolsheviks in Petropavlovsk (in present-day Kazakhstan) and in Omsk. London: Ludgate Press Ltd., 1964. To meet this danger the Allies intervened with Great Britain and France sending troops into Russian ports. Soviet demographer Boris Urlanis estimated the total number of men killed in action in the Civil War and Polish–Soviet War as 300,000 (125,000 in the Red Army, 175,500 White armies and Poles) and the total number of military personnel dead from disease (on both sides) as 450,000. Another one to two million people, known as the White émigrés, fled Russia, many with General Wrangel—some through the Far East, others west into the newly independent Baltic countries. The Red Army eventually halted this offensive, and Wrangel's troops had to retreat to Crimea in November 1920, pursued by both the Red and Black cavalry and infantry. , The Bolsheviks decided to immediately make peace with the German Empire and the Central Powers, as they had promised the Russian people before the Revolution. Revolt against the Bolsheviks continued, The Red Army peaked in October 1920 with 5,498,000: 2,587,000 in reserves, 391,000 in labor armies, 159,000 on the front and 1,780,000 drawing rations. Major Ewen Cameron Bruce of the British Army had volunteered to command a British tank mission assisting the White Army. In Central Asia, Red Army troops continued to face resistance into 1923, where basmachi (armed bands of Islamic guerrillas) had formed to fight the Bolshevik takeover. The railways barely crawl. Size of this preview: 796 × 600 pixels.  However, after the Bolshevik destruction of the Provisional Government in Tashkent, Muslim elites formed an autonomous government in Turkestan, commonly called the "Kokand autonomy" (or simply Kokand). , During the Red Terror, estimates of Cheka executions range from 12,733 to 1.7 million. ", Stone, David R. "The Russian Civil War, 1917–1921," in, Smele, Jonathan D. "Still Searching for the ‘Third Way’: Geoffrey Swain's Interventions in the Russian Civil Wars. , At the end of the Civil War the Russian SFSR was exhausted and near ruin. Media in category "Allied Intervention in the Civil war of Russia" The following 193 files are in this category, out of 193 total. Subsequently, the Dashanaks, Right SRs and Mensheviks started negotiations with Gen. Dunsterville, the commander of the British troops in Persia. On 18 November a coup d'état established Kolchak as dictator. In June 1918 the Volunteer Army, numbering some 9,000 men, started its Second Kuban campaign. A Czecho-Slovak scout in Siberia LCCN2016822064.jpg 5,970 × 4,278; 3.93 MB. Epidemics spread and death strikes—industry is ruined. French forces landed in Odessa but, after having done almost no fighting, withdrew on 8 April 1919. The following 194 files are in this category, out of 194 total. CIVIL WAR AND WESTERN INTERVENTION 1918-1920.jpg, Char Renault et soldats français a Odessa 1918 1919.jpg, Dead soldiers from Russia LCCN2014709235.jpg, Dead soldiers from Russia LCCN2014709236.jpg, Dead soldiers from Russia LCCN2014709236.tif, Dead soldiers from Russia LCCN2014709398.jpg, Demonstration of British force to impress native inhabitants, Baku, July 1919.jpg, Entry of the Red Army in Odessa, April 1919.jpg, French Military Mission at Archangel, Colonel Dunop at center, Russian Intevention 1918-1920 (5558) (18342003755).jpg, Fusiliers North Russia 1919 (AWM04700).jpg, Germans & American Guard, Siberia LCCN2014708362.jpg, Germans & American Guard, Siberia LCCN2014708362.tif, HMS CARLISLE in VLADIVOSTOCK HARBOUR 1919.jpg, HMS LORD NELSON at NOVOROSSISK in the BLACK SEA 1919.jpg, HMS SUPERB & ALLIED SHIPS ENTERING SEBASTOPOL in 1918.jpg, La marine en action contre les Bolchevicks le Centaur dans la mer Noire 1919.jpg, Mai 1933 p50 troupes françaises 13 mars 1919 à Sébastopol Rap.jpg, Main St. of Habarovsk (i.e.